A Multidimensional Model of Resilience

There are many factors that are associated with resilience. Some of the more common aspects of successful navigation and negotiation for well-being under stress include the following:

Individual factors:

Assertiveness; the ability to solve problems; Self-efficacy; Being able to live with uncertainty; Self-awareness; Perceived social support; A positive outlook; Empathy for others; Having goals and aspirations; Showing a balance between independence and dependence on others; Appropriate use of or abstinence from substances like alcohol and drugs; A sense of humour; A sense of duty (to others or self, depending on the culture).

Relationships factors:

Parenting that meets the child's needs; Appropriate emotional expression and parental monitoring within the family; Social competence; The presence of a positive mentor and role models; Meaningful relationships with others at school, home, perceived social support; Peer group acceptance.

Community contexts:

Opportunities for age-appropriate work; Avoidance of exposure to violence in one's family, community, and with peers; Government provision for children's safety, recreation, housing, and jobs when older; Meaningful rights of passage with an appropriate amount of risk; Tolerance of high-risk and problem behavior; Safety and security; Perceived social equity; Access to school and education, information, learning resources.

Cultural factors:

Affiliation with a religious organization; Tolerance for different ideologies and beliefs; Adequate management of cultural dislocation and a change or shift in values; Self-betterment; Having a life philosophy; Cultural and/or spiritual identification; Being culturally grounded by knowing where you come from and being part of a cultural tradition that is expressed through daily activities.

Physical Ecology factors:

Access to a healthy environment; Security in one’s community; Access to recreational spaces; Sustainable resources; Ecological diversity (for more on this, see our publications page